Druid Astronomy, Science, and Religion
The European Druids who worshiped near sacred oak groves are of interest because they resemble every known group of shaman-priest-scientist from China to Egypt and the Americas. All these groups shared a common language and common sciences; namely astronomy, astrology, and cosmology. They were characterized wearing white beards, complimented by white robes, cutting the sacred mistletoe from the oaks with a golden sickle; and making sacrificial bonfires of people incarcerated in gigantic wicker figures.
I was born in Friedeslar (Place of Peace) in Germany. This was the location of the magnificent Donnar-Oak sacred to the god Thor. Druids do not worship oak trees, per se. Oak trees just happen to grow upon cosmic energy sites. Saint Boniface hacked down this Donnar-Oak; officially putting an end to Druidism while converting Northern Germany to Christianity. "Donnar" or Donner, "the Thunderer" is an appellation of Thor-Jupiter-Zeus, the ruler of the of Piscean Cycle of the rotation of the Milky Way over the period of 18 million years.
When the Sun crosses the equator, the Northern Hemisphere experiences the blossoms of Spring followed by the hatching of birds and fowl, and the birth of lambs. This is an astrological event brought on by the mechanics of cosmic physics. Druids used their knowledge of the natural and cosmic order to organize society under laws, customs, and a year long calendar of predictable and reliable events to serve agriculture, hunting, fishing, and navigation.
Druids have been credited with some amazing abilities, such as the teleportation of thoughts and even their bodies through a world wide web of lay lines and sacred sites. Druids were noted astronomers who believed in astrologically caused or generated natural events -excepting of course, our freedom of will and reason. Some critics have said that the Druids ruled through astronomy; that is predicting weather conditions or eclipses of the Sun and Moon -when they had already calculated these events sometime beforehand. Anyone who has seen the shadow of the slithering serpent gliding down the pyramid staircase at Chichen Itza in Yucatan during the equinoxes can only be impressed; and is forced to admit that these people had attained superior knowledge which they were able to flaunt in this impressive way.
The Magic of the Druids
Investigating the magic of the Druids may enlighten us further about the special earth-forces said to have been found marked upon the ancient landscapes and around megalithic monuments. John Michell in his chapter on “Sacred Engineering” gives us many important references and facts about these olden scientists and magicians of Northern Europe:
According to Caesar it required 20 years of oral instruction to qualify a Druid. Their doctrines were not permitted to be written down, though they used the Greek alphabet for other purposes. They are regarded as prophets and seers who use the Pythagorean skill of ciphers and numbers to derive the future. They are counted among the Egyptians, Persians, the Indian Brahmins, and the Chaldeans as possessing secret knowledge and skill. Groups of Culdees were found among Druid converts. St. Boniface came upon a Culdee college at Rosemarkie on the Black Isle above Inverness. There were numerous Druid colleges in Ireland such as Lismore and Blarney Castle, in England notably at Bath, and the famous center of inspiration of Chartres in France was originally a great Druid learning center. The name “Druid” was anciently applied to many megalithic monuments, standing stones, and stone circle.
Druids have been credited with the ability to fly, to raise the dead, to control the weather, to travel in a state of invisibility, and to time-travel by escaping the current barrier of time. Their colleges taught science, magic, philosophy, astronomy, astrology, geometry, music, and mathematics. Final graduates were able to demonstrate the dimensions of the earth, the heavenly bodies, and discourse about the subtle forces that control their movements.
In Uriel's Machine By Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas report that the Druids were both priests, judges, and teachers. Their legal judgments dictated the compensation to be paid and received by the parties concerned. They could exact the ultimate punishment of an individual by banishment as an outlaw of the community. Druids were exempt from military service and all taxes. The Irish St. Columba was just one of many Druids who converted to the special from if Irish Christianity (sometimes called Culdee -perhaps an association to the Caldeans). Columba defeated the Druid Broichan of the King of the Picts in a contest of magic skill, as did other converted Druids in order to spread the new religion.
The Druids believed in the immortality of the soul, passing from one body into another [This does not mean randomly skipping around from a pre-formed body to another; but rather in the sense that the soul builds itself a body out of the qualities that it has cultivated, learned, and accepted in an earlier lifetime incarnation. The soul's game is to achieve the highest point of perfection]. D.E. Duncan in The Calendar tells that Julius Caesar learned about the movements of the heavens from the Druids, and that he even wrote a book about astronomy as a precursor to correctly readjusting the Roman Calendar which had become torturously misaligned, confusing official and legal business days for courts, government, markets, holidays, and festivals.
Julius Caesar admits that the Druids, "hold long discussions about the heavenly bodies and their movements, the size of the universe and the Earth, and the physical constitution of the world, and the power and properties of the gods; and they instruct young men in all these subjects." Caesar continues, "The Celts all claim to be descended from the god of the underworld whom they call Father Dis. For this reason they measure time not by the day but by nights [and by Lunar months], and in celebrating birthdays, the first of the month and New Year's Day, they go on the principle that the day begins after the end of night." [But Hesiod has already explained that First there was Chaos -who begat Darkness and Night -who together produced the Day and light.] It also appears that Julius Caesar contracted a jealous obsession with the conquest of Britain and the eradication of the wise and talented Druid astronomers.
The Amazing History of Ireland
By a miracle of God and Saint Patrick there is no country in the world which has such a long and complete history as Ireland. The amazing depth of these chronicles is due to the fact that each subsequent invasion of people adopted the ancestors of the previous inhabitants of the island. This expedient firmly kept the ancient order in tack through the respect and preservation of the earlier names. This makes for a very easy-to-decipher system which is the oldest intact chronology of ancestors in the world. The ancient order of Druids maintained a system of local and national history that was presented, reviewed, challenged, and rectified every three years at Tara:
The Three Great Purging's and Disenfranchising of Irish Genealogy
The Aiteach Tuatha –All non-Milesians including artisians, mechanics, and builders and tradesmen who work with their hands. Anglification of the nobility –Scots, British, Welsh. Circa 56 AD
Cormac Mac Art and the exorcism of the Druids in 227 AD
Saint Patrick’s contention with the Druids. Review and acceptance of the Laws and Annals of Ireland 427 AD. Roman Law was not necessary to be introduced because of the history, culture, and existing laws of Ireland.
The Book of Invasions of Ireland mentions many names attributed to the island by the many conquerors of Ireland:
Post Flood Inhabitants
Fir-Moracchi –the Men from Morocco (women leaders, Amazons, organizational skills, taxes)
Fir-Bolg –the Men from Belgium (see Keating c.56 AD)
Tautha de Danaan –the Tribe of Danes (Scandinavian “All Things”) Druids, magic, music-dance. Look at your “Red Book” for all the particulars about adopting ancestors.
Milesians from Northern Spain (Brigantes)
St. Patrick and the Brotherhoods of the Roman Church (Cistercians, Franciscans, 4 Masters)
Anglo-Normans (early, later, Sir Walter Raleigh, Richard Boyle)
According to John Healy, DD, LLD, Bishop of Clonfert
Some have asserted that Druidism is a philosophy and not a religion. But most authorities, including Caesar, assert that the Druids that lived among the Celtic tribes of France, Britain, and Ireland attended to religious worship in public and in private, and also expounded omens and oracles. Though they notched the edges of stones and their yew staffs with the mystic Ogham characters, the Druids had no books and handed down their teachings through oral tradition through a course of study lasting twenty years. Their chief university which many of the continental Druids attended was on the Isle of Mona, which today is called the Isle of Man, and formerly Anglesey.
Druids were also judges who enforced their decisions through strict social excommunication. Their leader was the Arch-Druid who was appointed for life. Their temples were in sacred groves and upon high places. By customary law their altars were of unhewn natural stone. Mainly their religion may be summarized as cosmological and rooted in a cosmic culture derived from astronomy, astrology, and geodesy, including divining for earth energy. The cosmological derivation of their religion is apparent in their affirmation of the immortality and transmigration of the soul. Bishop Healy remarks that this aspect of their belief assisted in the introduction of Christianity into their communities. They also modeled their beliefs upon the understanding of the natures and cycles of the elements, such as the chaos of wind and the fire of the Sun.
The name “Druid” comes from the Celtic word derw, meaning “oak.” It may be remarked that oaks were sacred to the Greeks throughout the Mediterranean because this was the sacred tree of Zeus-Jupiter the ruler of the comic age of Pisces. The yew, blackthorn, and quicken were also regarded as sacred. The Druids made their staffs and diving rods from yew and oak [but, certainly hazel and willow were better water diviners than hard oak and yew].
Bishop Healy says that our knowledge of Irish Druidism is derived chiefly from incidental references in old romantic tales, and also in the Lives of the Saints, and especially in the Lives of St. Patrick. An interview with the daughters of King Laeghaire at the Cliabach Well indicates that Druidism involved the worship of fairy gods, or elves. Druids were not only the priests but the guides and counselors to the kings on all occasions of danger and emergency. They were present upon the battle field and expected to pronounce curses and incantations. They were required to foresee and foretell the future.
Druids announced the coming of the “shaven-crown” priests and St. Patrick into Ireland long before their arrival. The Druids were able to bring snow to the plains in their battles with St. Patrick –but they could not make it disappear as he could. They could cover the world with sudden darkness but could not dispel it as he could. The Druids could strike their victim with lunacy by a curse called the “Fluttering Wisp”, or afflict him with the elements. There is even some references to the sacrifice of children to the idol of Cenn Cruaich.
Druids had knowledge of astronomy, and possessed a knowledge of healing herbs and medicine. They discoursed about philosophy and the nature of things. They projected an image vested with mysterious and supernatural powers, and the possession of esoteric learning that was exclusively their own. Tara was their chief seat in Ireland, but also at Cruachan in Connaught, and at Killala beyond the River Moy. Dressed in white, the Druids of Ireland actually had their own books. They were endowed with lands for their maintenance, and enjoyed special privileges and immunities, like the Bards and Brehons. Healy writes that in the remote districts of the country some of the Druids remained for several centuries after the island generally became Christian.
Further on in Healy’s narrative (p.19) it is said that “Tara of the Druids (as just related above)” was the residence of the High Kings of Erin from the first time of the Firbolg, again during the Tautha De Danaan, and for the later Milesian race as well. The renowned Ollamh Fodhla founded a college of learned doctors there at Tara. The Feis of Tara had been convened in 85 AD by Tuathal Teachtmar to rectify the laws of the realm; to review, to test, and possibly affirm the notable events that took place in each of the territories which when authenticated would be entered into the Saltair of Tara; and finally to register the genealogies of the ruling families, assess the taxes, and settle disputed succession among the tribes of the kingdom. This great national assembly convened for a week beginning the third day before, and ending the third day after November Day (the highest feast of the Druids, the Day of the Dead of the Mexica-Maya-Andean culture when the Sun comes between the borders of the zodiac signs of Scorpio and Sagittarius exactly where the Milky Way crosses the ecliptic).
The New Year’s Day of the Druids was March 10th when they cut the mistletoe from the sacred oak. The first of May was the festival of the Sun god and the occasion of the lighting of the New Fires. The great November festival called Samuin seems to have been held in honor of the dead ancestors and the ancient fairy-gods who dwelt in the mountains of Ireland. There is also some confusion here concerning the West, the underworld, and the Land of Youth. An event involved the abduction of Edain, queen of Tara, by the fairy-people who hid her in the Land of Youth. She was rescued and restored by the magic of Dallan the Druid.
Healy finishes his discourse upon the Druids by making two extraordinary revealing statements about the Druids:
We find reference made to the Druids as present with every colony that came to Erin, which shows at least that the old bards and chroniclers regarded them as an essential element of the nation.
After the revision of the Brehon Laws in the time of St. Patrick, we find all reference to the Druids, their rights, and their privileges, entirely expunged from that ancient code. Accordingly we know nothing about the Irish Druids, except what may be gathered from such accidental references as those to which we have already referred.
Therefore, since the history of the Druids were expunged from the records of Ireland, it is possible that some information about them may have been transferred to the other learned classes of Irish culture, namely the Bards and the Brehons. But, here again we have a curious incident which led to the disenfranchisement of the Bards from their part in the history and laws of Ireland. Bishop Healy writes:
Until Patrick came, only three classes of persons were permitted to speak in public in Erin: a Chronicler to relate events and to tell stories; a Poet to eulogize and satirize; a Brehon to pass sentence from precedents and commentaries…it is noteworthy that no reference is made to the Druids [because their duties were absorbed by the above three learned professions]…
But here, Bishop Healy recalls a most provocative incident in Irish history, an event which again realigned the basic structure of duties within the social, religious, and political framework of the island of Ireland:
…for a long time the judicature had belonged to the poets [Druids] alone, that is, from the time of Amergin, the first poet judge, down to the time of the Contention at Emhain Macha between the two sages, Ferceirtne and Neidhe. The language which the poets spoke on that occasion was so obscure, that the chieftains could not understand what had passed between the rival Sages. It was therefore ordained by Connor Mac Nessa and his chieftains, that henceforth the poets should be deprived of that exclusive privilege by which they had hitherto enjoyed, and made too exclusive; and that the men of Erin in general should be entitled to have their proper share in the judicature. This dim tradition clearly represents a protest against the technical language of an exclusive and privileged class, who for their own purposes, sought to keep secret their traditional lore. Thus it came to pass that thenceforth the profession of the judge and poet became quite distinct, and the judge assumed the post of official chronicler and keep of records of his tribe.
Bishop Healy relates more particulars in that young Neidhe (son of the former Chief Poet of Ireland) had traveled to further his education and returning home finding the chief poet’s chair empty by the temporary absence of Professor Ferceirtne –he sat upon it but was suddenly discovered by the Professor who in poetic phrase asked who the distinguished stranger was upon whom rested the splendor of the poet’s Gown (which Neidhe had also put on). Neidhe answered him in language as poetic as his own, and thereupon began the famous Dialogue in which the rival poets displayed all their various accomplishments in literature, history, and druidism. The victory was finally gained by the youthful Neidhe who proved himself worthy of his father’s chair; but with modest condescension yielded the place to the elder Ferceirtne, and consented to become his pupil and destined successor.
It is therefore apparent that the dissolution and devolution of the powers, position, and even the very name of “Druid” from the social and political structure of Ireland meant that those duties and capacities that the Druid fulfilled had to be passed on to others to perform. This is shown by Healy’s description of the office of judge which quickly passed on to the poets who again lost this power which was then bestowed upon an independent order and a totally separate class of judges. The question may be asked, “Independent and totally separate” from what?” The answer to that question is –from the ancient establishment of the customary usage of and by the Druids. Healy continues on regarding the duties of the Bard:
The function of the Bard, or poet, afterwards was “to eulogize and to satirize”…We know however, that as a matter of fact all our historical documents down to the tenth century are written in poetry, that is, in a certain meter and rhythm, which would help to preserve these compositions even without the aid of writing for the benefit of posterity, that is to say, the Chronicler was also a poet…The File, or poet in the more restricted sense of the word, soon became a pest and a nuisance. He was willing enough to eulogize when he expected liberal rewards; but if he were disappointed in his hopes…he never spared the poison shafts of his flashing wit…The poets were extortionate too in exacting rewards for their eulogistic verse…Before Patrick’s time the poet placed his divining staff upon the person’s body or upon his head, and found out his name, and the name of his father and mother, and discovered every unknown thing that was proposed to him in a minute or two or three [this definitely reminds of the magical abilities of the Druids].
The point of these investigations into Druidism is to establish that Druidism is not a peculiar and special manifestation of Northern European culture. As Bishop Healy remarks that Druidism was an integral part of every foreign invasion into Ireland –brought from abroad, but recognized without question within Ireland –and also preserved and continued as the Culdee faith long after St. Patrick had declared Druidism illegal in Erin. Students of Mexica-Maya-Andean science and culture will immediately recognize Druidism in these American lands which practiced a cosmological worldview and culture. The greater part of that culture was dedicated to astronomy in the heavens, electro-magnetic sites, and ley lines connecting holy places which were positioned above water spirals and blind springs. These places transmit the cosmic energy of heaven to the places on the surface of the Earth. Our understanding of Druidism may be enhanced by regarding them as a worldwide order of cosmologically astute priests who also investigated the natural sciences –and whose intellect qualified them to be advisers to kings, as well as administrate law, genealogy, and history for society. In Ireland the ancient traditions of the Poets and Brehons should be simply classed among the duties and accomplishments of the Druids considering their exclusion from the records of the island, and the opening of the order of the Brehons to outsiders. Druidism of itself is a silly classification, and these should realistically be called among those who were the “Priests of the Cosmic Order” exactly identical to the High Priests of Egypt, the Orient, and North and South America. Indeed Druidism sheds considerable light upon the entire order of Cosmic Priests around the world.
Healy also discusses the Brehons, the third of the learned and specially privileged Orders in ancient Erin. The customary laws were formulated in brief sententious rhymes. These rhythmical maxims of law were at first transmitted orally. The Poets and Files [Druids] had not only the custody of the laws but also the exclusive right of expounding them to the people, and pronouncing judgments both criminal and civil. They were the official assessors who even guided the King in their judgment. The Poets [Druids] were exceedingly jealous of this great privilege, and in order to exclude outsiders from any share in the administration of the law they preserved the archaic legal formula with the greatest secrecy and tenacity. After the great verbal battle mentioned above King Conor Mac Nessa opened the office of Brehon to all who duly qualified themselves by acquiring the learning necessary to enable them to discharge its duties. It was Connla “of the Fair Judgments” who said that it was God, and not the Druids, who made the heavens, and the earth, the sun and the moon and the sea.
King Cormac Mac Art
Bishop Healy calls Cormac Mac Art the greatest king that every reigned in Ireland, “He was, as our poets tell us, a sage, a judge, and a scholar, as well as a great prince and a skillful warrior.” He ascended to the throne in 227 AD and fought no less than 50 battles to become High King of Erin. He supported a standing force of chivalrous knights of the Fenian militia to promote peace in Ireland; and also maintained a fleet of ships at sea to protect the coasts of Ireland from marauding pirates. Cormac’s children disappointed him, and even caused him to be no longer eligible to serve as King of Ireland –when he lost his eye in a brawl during a court case involving his son. This however granted Cormac the freedom to study and write, which he much preferred to the kingship. He founded three schools at Tara –one for the teaching of the art of war, the second for the study of history, and the third was a school of jurisprudence.
According to ancient and well founded tradition recorded in the Four Masters, Cormac Mac Art “turned from the religion of the Druids to the worship of the true God” and became a Christian; though this fact is underplayed to credit St. Patrick with the conversion of Ireland 204 years later. All of Cormac’s attention and writings were focused upon disenfranchising the Druids of their ancient power in Ireland. And because of this onslaught it is recorded in an olden poem that the Druids, led by their chief named Maelgenn:
“They loosed their curse against the king,
They cursed him in his flesh and bones;
And daily in their mystic ring
They turned the maledictive stones.
“Till where at meat the monarch sate,
Amid the revel and the wine,
He choked upon the food he ate
At Sletty, southward of the Boyne.”
From the Druid’s standpoint, it was most fitting that Cormac had chocked upon a salmon bone because the salmon is the ancient icon of learning and wisdom in Ireland, “the Salmon of knowledge.” It is said that Cormac had wished to be buried at Rossnaree, where he first believed the Christian faith. His followers however wanted such a great king to be buried with his peers alongside Brugh na Boyne (Newgrange) where the great kings of Ireland rest. It is recorded that the river Boyne rose up against the funeral procession and actually carried off the bier at the ford. Next morning the body of Cormac was discovered on the banks of the Boyne at Rossnaree. It would be inappropriate to criticize the events told in this account; but even by the most romanticized twist –it is apparent that Cormac Mac Art was indeed a Christian who was dedicated to overthrowing the all-encompassing power of the Druids. Bishop Healy says (p.26), “Nothing is more likely then that the message of the Gospel was brought from England to the ears of King Cormac; and that a prince, so learned and so wise, gave up the old religion of the Druids, and embraced the new religion of peace and love. But it was a dangerous thing to do even for a king. The Druids were very popular and very influential, and moreover possessed, it was said, dreadful magical powers…The king’s death was caused by the bone of a salmon sticking in his throat…brought about by the magical power of Maelgenn, the chief of the Druids.”
Just as a noteworthy aside, Bishop Healy writes (p.624) that among the royal prerogatives of the High King of Ireland belonged:
To have the salmon of the Boyne, which was a royal river; to eat the fruit of Man [Island of Iona?], and the deer of Luibnech; to get the bilberries of Bri-Leith, and the cresses of the river Brosnach; to drink the spring water of Tlachtga, and hunt the hares of Naas.
Cormac Mac Art is credited with the composition or ordering the compilation of several manuscripts especially the Saltair of Tara which contained “the synchronisms and genealogies, as well as the succession of the Irish kings and monarchs, their battles, their contests, and their antiquities from the world’s beginning down to the time it was written. And this is the Saltair of Tara, which is the origin and fountain of the histories of Erin from that period down to the present time.” It must be said that King Cormac recast the ancient annals of Ireland to make them acceptable and comfortable to the bishops and doctors of the new Christian religion which was founded and based upon a Judaic genealogy of kings and heroes. And oddly enough, those who attempt to interject this heresy do so through the adventures of the Prophet Jeremiah and the daughters of King ******[re-check]**** at the location of Tara.
It was King Cormac Mac Art who became the author of the earliest Code of Laws in pagan Ireland by the simple expedient of reducing the traditional legal maxims to writing. This may be adduced from the fact that Cormac’s book, the Book of Aicill, actually contains the ancient laws of Ireland written in archaic legal maxims –the most archaic form of the Irish language (p.25).
It may be appreciated that on a worldwide plane that “oral and family transmission” of information and tradition guarantees its possession by certain specific families who derive benefit and support from society and the state by privately safeguarding this data. Healy writes (p.12), “These three Orders of Druids, Bards, and Brehons were as we have seen close corporations invested with many privileges, and communicating a professional knowledge for the most part by oral instruction to their disciples.” Healy also speaks of “some kind of secret language known only to the initiated.” The ordinary course of study lasted twelve years, while the Doctorate required a full twenty years of study.
Saint Patrick in Ireland 432-492 AD
Bishop Healy writes (p.42) that St. Patrick found an organized pagan priesthood, which had learning and philosophy of its own, similar to that of Gaul and Britain. Upon arriving in Ireland Patrick lit the paschal fire at Slane on Holy Saturday in sight of the Druids at Tara who had already foretold his arrival and had predicted that if the flame that Patrick had lit was not put out before morning it could never be extinguished in Ireland (p.51). One of the chief Druids from Tara enviously assailed Patrick in the presence of the king of Slane, but at Patrick’s prayer the impious man was first raised high in the air, and falling down his brains were dashed out on the ground before the king. The next day, Luchat the Bald, another of the Royal Druids challenged Patrick to a contest of miracles but consumed himself to ashes when one of his fire tricks went wrong. Healy writes that it is very apparent that these contests express that the conflict between Druidism and Christianity was “a conflict to the death of one of the forces.” Elsewhere, Patrick crossed the Shannon where Moel and Caplait, Druids of Cruachan, brought a thick darkness over the plain of Magh Aei. But again, the power of Patrick’s God vanquished them –the darkness was miraculously dissipated by Patrick, and they themselves were converted to the faith of Christ.
Patrick burnt the Druid’s books at Tara and drove the idols of Magh Slecht into the ground; but he dealt tenderly with the failings and the superstitions of the people. Their sacred places were re-consecrated; the Druids themselves, when truly converted, were not deemed unworthy to serve as priests; the holy wells and streams were blessed, and the ancient festivals of the Druids were now made to do honor to the Christian saints. Therefore the great mid-summer festival was made over to St. John the Baptist, and November Eve became the Vigil of All Saints.
Dubhthach Mac Ua Lugair, the Chief Poet and Brehon of Ireland was the first to believe in Patrick’s Gospel at Tara. It was he who convoked the men of Erin to a conference at Tara where all the professors of science exhibited their arts, laws, judgments, and poetry before Patrick and the chiefs of Ireland. And as these arts, laws, and judgments were of a true nature which the Holy Ghost had spoken through the mouths of the Brehons and just poets of the men of Erin from the first occupation of the island down to the reception of the faith –St. Patrick and the chiefs and priests all approved them except for the privileges of the Druids and the law of retaliation. This great conference took place in 438 AD. It is clearly stated that St. Patrick made no attempt to introduce Roman Civil Law into Ireland (p.56). It is said that in ancient times almost every member of a family could play the harp. Patrick chose to reform and soften the war songs filled with hatred and rancorous vengeance of old as he attempted to introduce sweet chants and Church hymns. It is further said that St. Patrick met with more opposition in Ireland than is commonly supposed. He was put into bonds of iron for fourteen days, and even in his old age was living in poverty and in daily fear of death.
The Disenfranchisements in Ireland
In about 54 AD the king of Ireland for 27 years, Fiachadh Fionfachtnach was murdered by the plebeians of Ireland, called the Aitheach Tuatha. Keating writes (p.228-241) that “there was a conspiracy formed by the common people of the kingdom, the ordinary mechanics and meanest of the plebeians, to dethrone the reigning monarch, to murder the nobility and gentry, and by that means to seize upon the government…they resolved to provide a most magnificent entertainment, and to invite the king, the petty princes, and the nobility and gentry of the kingdom to a feast that was to be celebrated at a place called Magh Cru, in the province of Connacht. This feast was three years in the making…The principle guest was Fiachaidh Fionoluidh, the monarch of Ireland (and his wife, Eithne, daughter of the King of Scotland)…King of Munster (and his wife, Beartha, daughter of the King of Wales)…and the king of Ulster (and his wife, Aine, daughter of the King of England) …the plebians, and the vilest scum of the people…fell suddenly upon the guests…and put them to the sword without distinction, except the three queens who were all big with child…the first opportunity they made their escape, and landed safely in Scotland.”
In 79 AD the son of Eithne and the murdered king, was restored to the throne of Ireland. His name was Tuathal Teachtmhar, and it was he who disenfranchised the genealogies of the most ancient Formorocchi, the Firbolgs, and many of the other ancient races of Ireland. Confusingly, Keating writes that the mechanics of this country, in those days were the remnant of the Tuatha de Danaan, who were permitted to stay in the kingdom, the Brigantes, and some of the principle plebeians, as well as the lower branches of the Milesian race were the militia of the island, the historians, antiquaries, harpers, physicians, and Brehon or judges, and other public officers of the state, who would not submit to any manual labor, lest they should degrade and bring stain upon the honor of their families. Keating already remarked (p.230) that “the Milesian soldiery had degenerated into a barbarous and rebellious race of men…and those few that remained, were so vile and infamous, that the antiquarians never preserved their genealogies but passed them over in oblivion, as a reproach and scandal to the Irish nation.” It may be inferred from all these remarks that there was a wholesale revision of the genealogical records of the kingdom during this epoch, most especially motivated through the new found nobility of the Scots, British, and Welsh distaff lines.
It should be noticed that the revolutionaries brought their leader Cairbre Cinncait “cat’s ears” to the throne of Ireland in 54 AD. His genealogy derives from Rionoil, son of the king of Denmark of the posterity of the Firbolg, who came to Ireland with Labhra Loingseach “of the horse’s ears.” The successor to the above king was Elim in 59 AD great-grandson of Sithrighe, son of Dubh, son of Fomhoir [Fomorocchi] of the royal line of Ir. These two kings were most assuredly of the ancient Fomorocchi and Firbolg races, whose tradition was now to be formally erased from the Irish records.
It is important to see how history works when it seeks to cleanse its dirty laundry whether it is ashamed of its Druid of North African and Atlantic roots. Past glories of nobility, science, and craft being are obviously in the eye of the current beholder. These Moroccans certainly inherited the same Atlantic culture that the Greeks acknowledged when they claim that their gods were born in Fez-Morocco and among the Islands of the Blessed. Even the British historian reports that Stonehenge was first brought to Ireland from North Africa.
Irish Druids and Old Irish Religions (1894) by James Bonwick
Druidism supported a hereditary priesthood where the oral traditions were passed from father to son. Prof. Rhys judiciously remarks that "Irish Druidism absorbed a certain amount of Christianity, and it would be a problem of considerable difficulty to fix on the period where it ceased to be Druidism, and from which onwards it could be said of Christianity in any restricted sense of that term."
Some modern writers have called both St. Patrick and St. Columba –Culdees (servants of God), who are people of Christian beliefs who still adhere to the older customs and beliefs which are not in direct conflict with Jesus Christ. This is part of the natural amalgamation of the old and the new. Most of the converts, many of whom were Druids, competed in contests of power over the elements of nature with the old-believer obdurate Druids –whom they defeated at their own game of controlling the weather, walking on water, raising the dead.
Abbot Adamnan’s Vita of his great predecessor, St. Columba of Donegal (d.597), asserts his possession of every kind of miraculous power. He cured hundreds of people afflicted with inveterate diseases, accorded safety to storm-tossed vessels, himself walked across the sea to his island home, drove demons out of milk-pails, outwitted sorcerers, and gave supernatural powers to domestic implements." All this reminds one strongly of the powers attributed by tradition to the Druids of the period, and points suspiciously to some outgrowth from Druidism in his case. Adamnan further declares that his staff (without which a Druid could do but little), when once left behind at Iona, went of itself over the sea to its master in Ireland. The ruins at Iona are those of the Cluniac monks; for, says Boulbee, "not a trace can well remain of the primitive settlement of Columba." But Iona was certainly a Druidical college at first.
Like the Druids before them, the Culdees formed communities. Richey tells us,"The Church consisted of isolated monasteries, which were practically independent of each other; the clergy exercised no judicial power over the laity." On the other hand, Wood-Martin of Sligo supposes, "Christianity must have been first introduced into Ireland by missionaries of the Greek Church." He notes the fact that Bishops were to be found in almost every village. It is also pointed out that Columba never sought Papal sanction for the conversion of the Picts.
The Iona tonsure, like that of St. Patrick's time, was the shaving of all the hair in front of a line drawn over the top of the head from ear to ear. The Roman, as all know, was a circle at top, and appears to have been first adopted at Iona early in the eighth century. The first, or crescent, shape was Druidical. Iona had certainly a Druidical college till the community was expelled by Columba for his own community and the Highlanders still recognize it as the Druid's Isle. An old statistical work says, "The Druids undoubtedly possessed Iona before the introduction of Christianity." It must be admitted that the Culdees wore a white dress, as did the Druids, and that they occupied places which had a Druidical reputation. They used the Asiatic cross, now called that of St. Andrew's.
It was about that date, also, that the Roman way of keeping Easter succeeded the so called Irish mode. At the Council of Whitby, Colman of Iona was outvoted, though protesting the antiquity of his own practice. McFirbis's MS. speaks thus of the year 896,"In this year the men of Erin consented to receive jurisdiction and one rule from Adamnan respecting the celebration of Easter on Sunday on the 14th of the moon of April, and the coronal tonsure of Peter was performed upon the clerics of Erin." Again, it says, "The clergy of Erin held many Synods and they used to come to those Synods with weapons, so that pitched battles used to be fought between them, and many used to be slain." After this authority, one need not wonder at the assertion that Irish Druids formerly led contending parties.
Dr. J. Moore writes, "The Culdees seem to have adopted nearly all the Pagan symbols of the neighborhood." The Four Masters mentions the Ceile De in 806. O'Brien has them the Irish Ceile De, servant of God. Another calls them Clann Dia, Children of God. Barber considered them Mithraists. Higgins, in Celtic Druids wrote, "The Culdees were the last remains of the Druids.” The Four Masters record that "Maenach, a Celae-Dé, came across the sea westward to establish laws in Ireland." In the poem of Moelruein, it is the Rule of the Celae-n-dé.
The Keledei of Scotland, according to Dr. Reeves, had the same discipline as the Irish Colidei. One Collideus of the Armagh church died in 1574. One Celi-dé of Clonmacnois, dying in 1059, left several sons, who became Abbots after him. The canons of York were Culdees in Atheistan's time. Ceadda, Wilfrid's predecessor, was a Culdee. They were also called, from their mode of celebrating Easter, Quartadecimans. The last known in Scotland were in 1352. As Bede says, the Irish, being Culdees, would as soon communicate with pagans as with Saxons; the later following Latin or Romish Christianity.
Ireland, as reported by Giraldus, had a chapel of the Colidei on an island of Tipperary, as he declared some were on islands of Wales. They were in Armagh in 920. Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, asserts that the Northern Irish, "continued still their old tradition," in spite of the declaration of Pope Honorius. In Tirechan's Life of St Patrick, Cele-de came from Briton to Ireland in 919 He found these Irish, Welsh, and Scotch Christians to have, in addition to many heresies, the Jewish and Druidical system of hereditary priesthood. Property of the Church even descended from father to son; and, says Dr. Reeves, "was practically entailed to members of certain families." He adds that they were understood in the 12th century as "a religious order of clerks who lived in Societies, under a Superior, within a common enclosure, but in detached cells; associated in a sort of collegiate rather than œnobical brotherhood."
Giraldus, as well as Bede, complained of their hereditary priesthood. The same principle prevailed in the Druidical region of Brittany, and only yielded to the force of the Council of Tours in 1127. Although St. Columba had no exalted idea of the other sex, saying, "Where there is a cow there will be a woman, and where there is a woman there will be mischief." Yet his followers practiced marriage. But while, says Mylin, they "after the usage of the Eastern Church had wives, but they abstained from them, when it came to their turn to minister."
St. Bernard was distressed at what he heard of these Irish Culdees, who had no Confession, and never paid tithes. This harsh language is not worse than that employed by the Pope, when he entreated our Henry II. to take over Ireland, so as to bring the Irish into the Christian Church, compel them to pay tithes, and so civilize them.
Knight & Lomas
In Ariel's Machine (1999) Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas advance their theme that Enoch was taken by the angel Ariel to Newgrange, Bru na Boine in Ireland to learn astronomy. These authors cite older sources that say that most of the Druids and Bards simply converted to Christianity in those areas that did not contradict their own culture and religion. St. Patrick designedly went to many of the Druid holy places to preach his new gospel. Furthermore, most of the monasteries simply took over ancient Druid colleges. St. Columba is reported to have addressed a Gorsedd of Bards at Teilte saying, "Christ is my Druid, he is my true miracle worker." This saint created an ark in which to carry his writings called the Monymusk Reliquary which Scots warriors carried into battle before them as at Bannockburn. The symbol of Columba was a simple wheel of six spokes -said to emulate the solstices and equinoxes. Columba set up his monastery at the Druid isle of Iona, and many of the kings of Ireland and Scotland retired there as monks to spend the last days of their lives in holy contemplation. This Celtic-Christianity is often called the religion of the Culdees which had followers into modern times.
Western Druids had to study in colleges for up to 20 years. They were accounted sacred persons, law-givers, judges, and attorneys protected by custom and the law; and never to be harmed. The Romans realized that they could never control Britain unless they destroyed the Druids -who finally fled to the Island of Anglesey. Modern day Druidism was resurrected in 1717 on the day of the autumn equinox at the Apple Tree Tavern in Covent Garden and was attended by many of those who founded the first Grand Lodge of Freemasonry at the Goose and Gridiron in St. Paul's Churchyard in London. William Stukeley, Britain's first serious archaeologist was a founder member of the Society of Antiquaries, a Freemason, and the Grand Master of the Ancient Order of Druids, a position he held for 46 years.
Knight and Lomas bring up the legend of the travels of Jeremiah to the King of Ireland at Tara, supposedly restoring the line of David which had been exterminated by the Babylonian captivity and the sack of Jerusalem. There is a very strong movement of British-Hebraism, Knights Templar, and Freemasonry upon the British Isles. The layout of a Masonic Temple to accommodate its rites is according to the cardinal directions, North, South, East, and West. The North-East corner (and the stone "Jachin") marks the summer solstice sunrise, which continues through the center to mark the winter solstice sunset in the South-West corner. The South-East corner (and the stone "Boaz") marks the winter solstice sunrise whose line continues through the center of the temple to mark the North-West corner toward the summer solstice sunset. The summer solstice is dedicated to John the Baptist; while the winter solstice is in honor of John the Divine. Lastly it is recorded that Prince Charles was attended to at his circumcision, not by the Royal Physician, but by the Jewish Mohel of London.
In May 2011 we went to look for the original Great Fort at Lismore where St. Mahuda went to spend his retirement. Southeastward along the Blackwater River, anciently called the Avon, there stands a mighty hill covered in old beech and pine trees. The farmer who lived above it said it had three levels of caves and passages within it, and that it was a real fairy hill. It is prominently shown on the old Ordinance Survey Maps.
The Druids of Bath in England
Christopher Knight and Alan Butler in their Before the Pyramids report that during the 1700's it was the fashion for society to emulate more ancient times. At the court of Louis XIV ladies dressed as shepherdesses and minded sheep in the parklands of Versailles to relax by imitating beaucolic times. John Woods, the Regency city planner and architect of Bath was steeped in history and ancient Druidism. It was he who designed the King's Circus in Bath with its 366 Megalithic Yard circumference -a copy of Stonehenge. Indeed the Romans were attracted to the healing waters of that city because it was a famous Druid college and settlement upon its famous seven hills (like Rome and several other cities). The Romans also resurfaced and took over many of the ancient roads within the country.
Knight and Butler report on the 4,000 year old intact mummified bodies discovered in the desert of Tarim Xinjiang Uigar in Western China. There were men and women with red hair, over six feet tall, and of western European appearance. They were dressed in colorful robes of a plaid twill, trousers, boots, stockings, and "pointed witch hats". These terrifically tall conical hats belong to the Persian-Iranian of the Zoroastrian scientific-religious tradition, whose sages were called Maga or Magi (our word for magic). These Maga were talented astronomers, and doctors of medicine, who were said to be able to control the weather. Knight and Butler connect these astronomer-priests with the Druids of Europe.
My Own Personal View
I was born in Frideslar (Fritzlar) on the Eder in Germany, the site of the renown Donau-Jupiter Oak which was felled by St. Boniface in 723. Zeus-Jupiter-Belus-Osiris was known as the "Thunderer", and was lord of the Galactic Age of Pisces (not Precessional Age of Pisces) which lasted several million years. The oak-priests/astronomers were around the globe for this long period of time, and they were the scientists and engineers behind the megalithic astronomical sites. There is an especially interesting Druid site on the grounds of Blarney Castle in Cork, Ireland which is well worth the visit in spite of some preposterous Victorian renovations done in the past.
Water Divining at Ahenny and Killamery
(according to (nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet): Venus, Moon, and Mars exhibit no geophysical magnetism)
On May 20th 2011. There are two large crosses set upon more ancient bases which were originally surmounted by the omphalus which are now placed upon the top of the crosses. These omphali are very similar to the ones found in Delphi, Greece and also in Egypt. There is also a third base, quite small, and hallowed out to receive the spud of a stone cross. Using a very thin brass wire, I formed a dynamic loop held in suspension so that it could react to stimuli. The hold is like that of a divining rod between thumbs and fore-finger. In this mode of suspended tension the brass loop reacts like a hazel or willow divining rod –only with much more delicate reactions and precision. When you pass over any electro-magnetic water line and aquifer, the two wires will instantly touch; and they will instantly release when you pass over this phenomena. This is a wonderful instrument for testing the many wondrous circling hairline spirals that surround an ancient holy site.
Now again, you may attach an ordinary key at one end of the brass wire. And no matter which road I travelled in every direction of the compass, and even some 300 yards up one road; when I stopped a left the key loosely suspended from between forefinger and thumb –the key would start to swing of its own accord in the exact direction of the Holy Crosses. Finally, upon approaching the crosses the key would swing and tap into each of them. But, a few feet away the key swung between the crosses toward the center of a triangle formed by the two old crosses and the separate lone base. Upon closely divining this center of the imaginary triangle the key swung robustly in a circle, which is indicative of negative and female energy. The key swung in a straight line over the crosses and the lone base, which is indicative of positive and male energy.
Walking away from this female center, I counted 13 major rings until halfway up the slope between cemetery and stile. Then the brass dynamic loop locked tight which in my mind seemed to indicate an immense halo of energy around the entire site.
The word omphallus means a center or navel of the Earth. Here is a place of communication between heaven and Earth. Three phallic indications of energy are centered on the central spiral. There are many images of spirals surrounded by three or more reverse spirals of energy.
Another Day in Killamery
The ancient cross at Killamery is also male because the key swings in a straight line back and forth like a phallus. But grave stones in the vicinity are female. The holy well of St. Nicholas is close by and is female as indicated by the left handed circular spiral that the key indicates. Like Ahenny, even at a distance of several fields away the key swings in a straight line directly toward the holy cross at the site.
Druids according to Stukeley and/or Dr. John Smith ***that the Druids originate in Britain
The particular spot of ground where Stonehenge stands, is in the lordship of west or little Ambresbury: the possession of the reverend Mr. Hayward, who at present may be call’d the Archdruid of the island. ’Tis a delicate part of this large plain, with a gentle declivity from the south-west to the south and north-east. So that the soil, which is chalk, is perfectly dry and hard. Hence the infinite numbers of coaches and horses, that thro’ so many centuries have been visiting the place every day, have not obliterated the track of the banks and ditches. The water cannot possibly rest anywhere hereabouts. The founders consulted well for the stability of their work, and salubrity of the place. Cæsar informs us in his commentaries, B. G. vi. 13. that among the Druids, "one has the supreme authority. When he is dead, whoever excels in dignity succeeds. But if there be more candidates, the Archdruid is chose by the votes of the Druids: and sometimes they fight for it. At a certain fix’d time of the year the Gaulish Druids meet, in the territories of the Carnutes, which country is in the middle of Gaul, in a consecrated place. Hither all persons from all quarters come, who have any controversy, and stand to their determination. The discipline of the Druids arose in Britain, and is said from thence to have been brought into Gaul. And now, they who design to be more throughly initiated therein, go over to learn." Here in few lines the great author acquaints us with a vast fund of ancient history, and upon which whole volumes have been wrote. I observe no more from it at present, than that we may very reasonably conclude, the elegant and the magnificent structure of Stonehenge was as the metropolitical church of the chief Druid of Britain. This was the locus consecratus where they met at some great festivals in the year, as well to perform the extraordinary sacrifices and religious rites, as to determine causes and civil matters. Cæsar calls these appointments of the Druids in Gaul consecrated places, where probably was nothing but a circle of rude stones. Had he seen those of our island, an Avebury or even a Stonehenge...who had heard of the fondness of the Druids for groves. But how unfit is a grove for a great and public meeting upon civil affairs? And this for the excellency of its situation upon a vast plain, was well calculated for a publick meeting of those of the order, at an election of a new Archdruid.
As Cæsar's words give light to the work before us, so it confirms what the warlike author says, of the discipline being originally in Britain; which the critics upon the continent cannot bear, and vainly endeavour to spirit away Cæsar's meaning. The very building of Stonehenge, to say nothing of other like works here, shows it was not in vain, that the youth of Gaul came to learn of men, who could contrive and execute so mighty a work.
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